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Formalny i nieformalny angielski

By pisać poprawnie w języku angielskim konieczna jest znajomość i zdawanie sobie sprawy z różnic występujących pomiędzy formalnym i nieformalnym standardem języka angielskiego. Poniżej znajduje się lista typowych różnic charakteryzujących te dwa standardy.


Formal Informal
  • Words of Latin/French origin


  • Words of Anglo-Saxon origin
  • Single-word verbs

to arise

to mount / to board

  • Phrasal verbs, idioms with get
    to get up
    to get on
  • Formal Connecting words
    In addition, furthermore
    However, on the other hand,
    Therefore, consequently
  • Informal connecting words
  • Impersonal constructions
    it is said that
    the price has been increased
    one never knows
    it can be argued
  • Active constructions
    They say that
    they’ve put the price up
    you never know
    you can argue
  • Abstract nouns
    Is happiness possible during unemployment?
    After clarification of the problem areas..
  • Modal verbs, adjectives, clauses etc
    Can people be happy when they haven’t got a job?
    When the bits everyone was getting wrong had been explained…
  • Not ending with prepositions; use of whom
    To whom were you speaking?
  • Ending with prepositions
    Who were you speaking to?
  • Complex sentences
    The student, who was late for class, sprinted across the ground.
  • Simple sentences
    The student was late for class. He sprinted across the ground.
  • Use of inversions for conditionals and emphasis
    Should you require further information, please contact …
  • Inversion sometimes used for emphasis
    Only then did I realise …
  • No contractions in writing
    I will, we would
  • Contractions in writing
    I’ll, we’d


Angielski zawiera wiele zapożyczeń z innych języków, szczególnie anglosaksońskiego, francuskiego i łaciny. W 1066 anglosaksońscy mieszkańcy Brytanii zostali podbici przez posługujących się językiem francuskim Normanów. Ponieważ francuski był językiem klasy rządzącej (a łacina językiem edukacji), słowa pochodzące z tych dwóch języków uważa się za bardziej formalne, niż te które pochodzą z języka Anglosasów.

Tabelka poniżej przedstawia formalne słowa pochodzące z łaciny i francuskiego i ich nieformalne odpowiedniki, często wywodzące się z języka anglosaksońskiego.

Formal Informal Formal Informal
Verbs Nouns
to depart to go deficiency lack
to retain to keep vision sight
to cease to stop residence home
to function to work respiration breathing
to demonstrate to show comprehension understanding
to reside to live
to appear to seem
to abbreviate to shorten Adjectives
to terminate to end incorrect wrong
to assist / aid to help amiable friendly
to commence / initiate to begin vacant empty
to desire / require to want insane mad
to obtain to get inexpensive cheap
to liberate to free animated / vivacious lively
to consume to eat improved / better
juvenile / infantile childish
Adverbials sufficient enough
subsequently next/later entire / complete whole
principally senior older
consequently / therefore so
initially at first
ultimately / finally in the end

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Dział: Kultura
czwartek, 08 styczeń 2015 12:45

Business Idioms - Idiomy Biznesowe cz.3 (3 z 3)

Business Idioms - Idiomy i inne nieformalne angielskie wyrażenia stosowane w korporacjach i biurach


Witam oto materiał o idiomach, często nieformalnych i kolokwialnych wyrażeniach, które można usłyszeć w angielskojęzycznym biurze.

Zdecydowanie warto się zapoznać z tym materiałem. Szczególnie, że dotyczy on żywego, prawdziwego języka, którego przykłady trudno znaleźć w politycznie poprawnych podręcznikach do Business English.

Zapraszam do lektury i nauki:)

cz. 3

on the ball To be "one the ball" means to be alert and aware of things. My new personal assistant is working out well. He's really on the ball.
on the same page page If two people are "on the same page," they are in agreement about something. Let's go over the details of what we agreed on just to make sure that we're on the same page.
on top of something To be "on top of something" means to be in control of a situation and aware of changes. I read a lot to stay on top of the latest changes in my industry.
on your toes To be "on your toes" means to be alert. Stay on your toes. Anything can happen.
out in the open If something is "out in the open" it is public knowledge and not hidden from people. I think it's a good policy to do things out in the open because people get suspicious if you do things in secret.
out of the loop (opposite: in the loop) To be "out of the loop" means to not know something that a select group of people knows. The opposite, "to be in the loop," means to be part of a select group with knowledge that others do not have. I felt like I was out of the loop after being on vacation for two weeks.
pink slip If someone gets the "pink slip," it means they have been fired. They gave him the pink slip. He wasn't performing very well.
play hardball To "play hardball" means to be competitive in a cruel way and without showing mercy. Playing hardball means doing anything possible to win. He played hardball to get where he is, so I would be careful what you say and do around him.
put all someone's eggs in one basket To "put all someone's eggs in one basket," means to rely on only one thing to bring you success. It's not good to only invest in the stock market. You don't want to put all your eggs in one basket.
put the cart before the horse To "put the cart before the horse" means to do or think about things in the wrong order. They were trying to find investors without even having a business plan. They were putting the cart before the horse.
raise the bar To "raise the bar" means to set the standards or expectations higher, usually by achieving or creating something better than what had previously existed. The new software is getting great reviews. It looks like they've really raised the bar for the competition.
read between the lines To "read between the lines" means to understand something that wasn't communicated directly. Reading between the lines involves understanding what someone is implying or suggesting but not saying directly. He didn't say that he wants to leave the company, but I can read between the lines. He's thinking of getting a new job.
red tape "Red tape" refers to excessive rules, procedures, and regulations that make it difficult to accomplish something. We usually use "red tape" to talk about government requirements that create difficult, time-consuming barriers for people and businesses. The new law is going to create a lot of extra red tape and we're going to have to pay our lawyers a lot more money.
rock the boat To "rock the boat" means to cause problems or disrupt a peaceful situation. He thought about demanding a raise, but then he decided he didn't want to rock the boat.
round-the-clock "Round the clock" means 24 hours a day. We have round-the-clock production at all our manufacturing facilities.
run/go around in circles To "run (or go) around in circles" means to do the same thing over and over again without getting any results. I've made phone calls all day and haven't made a single sale. I feel like I've been running around in circles all day.
safe bet A "safe bet" means something that will probably happen. It's a safe bet that smart phones will be much more advanced in 10 years.
same boat If people are in the same difficult situation, they are in the "same boat." We're all worried about losing our jobs. We're in the same boat.
second nature When someone learns how to do something so well that it appears that he or she was born knowing how to do it, we say that the activity is "second nature" to him or her. He's been a computer programmer for ten years. At this point, programming is second nature him.
see eye to eye To "see eye to eye" with someone means to agree with that person. We don't always see eye to eye, but I respect her opinions and appreciate her honesty.
see something through To "see something through" means to do something until it is finished. I told my boss that I really wanted to see my current project through before taking on another project.
sever ties To "sever ties" means to end a relationship. We had to sever ties with several of our suppliers due to late shipments.
shoot something down To "shoot something down" means to deny something, such as a proposal or idea. It's best not to shoot ideas down during a brainstorming session. The goal is to generate ideas, not to criticize them.
sky's the limit If there is no limit to the possibilities of something, people often say "the sky's the limit." With their commission structure, the sky's the limit to what you can make.
small talk "Small talk" is conversation about unimportant topics that do not offend people (the weather, for example). We typically spend about 15 minutes making small talk before we start our meetings.
smooth sailing (or clear sailing) "Smooth sailing" is a term used to describe a situation where success is achieved without difficulties. Once our largest competitor went out of business, it was smooth sailing.
snail mail "Snail mail" is the term used for the traditional mail that goes through the post office. The term is used because a "snail" is a slow-moving animal. If you want to fill out form 52-E and send it to the government, you have to do it using snail mail. They don't allow you to scan the document.
stand one's ground If you "stand your ground," it means that you will not change your opinion or position on an issue. We tried to change the dress code, but Human Resources stood their ground.
start off on the right foot To "start off on the right foot" means to start something in a positive way. We offered them a very generous price on their first order and everything shipped on time. We really started off on the right foot.
start off on the wrong foot To "start off on the wrong foot" means to start something in a negative way. I just switched cable companies. They overcharged me for the first month's service. They really started off on the wrong foot.

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Witajcie w nowym roku drogie robaczki:)


Dziś zajmiemy się sztuką negocjacji - odrobina słownictwa negocjacyjnego po angielsku.




Negotiations vocabulary.Negocjacje biznesowe - słownictwo


Part of speech
część mowy
Example Sentence
Przykładowe zdanie


inna możliwość, alternatywa

other options We can't offer you the raise you requested, but let's discuss some other alternatives.


wzmocnić, rozwinąć

expand; give more information Could you amplify on your proposal please.



conflict that is addressed by using a neutral third party We're better to settle this between us, because a formal arbitration will cost both of us money.


pertraktować, prowadzić negocjacje

try to change a person's mind by using various tactics We bargained on the last issue for over an hour before we agreed to take a break.


najniższa proponowana suma

the lowest one is willing to go I'll accept a raise of one dollar per hour, but that's my bottom-line.


wspólny, zbiorowy

together This is a collective concern, and it isn't fair to discuss it without Marie present.


wynagrodzić, zrekompensować

make up for a loss If you are willing to work ten extra hours a week we will compensate you by paying you overtime.


zastosować się, spełniać

agree I'd be willing to comply if you can offer me my own private office.


pójść na kompromis

changing one's mind/terms slightly in order to find a resolution We are willing to compromise on this issue because it means so much to you.



a thing that is granted or accepted I think we can offer all of these concessions, but not all at once.

conflict resolution

rozwiązywanie konfliktów

general term for negotiations It is impossible to engage in conflict resolution when one of the parties refuses to listen.


skonfrontować, stanąć twarzą w twarz

present an issue to someone directly I confronted my boss about being undervalued, and we're going to talk about things on Monday.



agreement by all It would be great if we could come to a consensus by 5:00 P.M.
the working together I have appreciated your cooperation throughout these negotiations.
counter proposal
the offer/request which is presented second in response to the first proposal In their counter proposal they suggested that we keep their company name rather than creating a new one.
present other side of an issue Before we could start our counterattack they suggested we sign a contract.
odpowiednik; kopia
person on the other side of the negotiations I tried to close the discussions at noon, but my counterpart would not stop talking.
serdecznie, kordialnie
politely In the past I have had little respect for that client, but today she spoke cordially and listened to my point of view.
żądania, wymogi
needs/expectations that one side believes it deserves They had some last minute demands that were entirely unrealistic.
martwy punkt, impas
point where neither party will give in When the discussions came to a deadlock we wrote up a letter of intent to continue the negotiations next week.
argument/conflict I was hoping to avoid discussing last year's dispute, but Monica is still holding a grudge.
have the most control/stronger presence Max has such a loud voice, he tends to dominate the conversations.
mający prawo do
be deserving of My contract says that I am entitled to full benefits after six months of employment.
open/willing to change We have always been flexible in terms of your working hours.
targować się
arguing back and forth (often about prices) We've been haggling over this issue for too long now.
niechęć, wrogość
long-term anger towards another I want you to know that we don't have any hostility towards your company despite last year's mixup.
żądać więcej, niż naprawdę się oczekuje
make a request that is much higher than you expect to receive I'm planning to high-ball my expectations when I open the discussion.
quick decision without thought or time I acted on impulse when I signed that six-month contract.
niezdecydowany, nierozstrzygnięty
has difficulty choosing/making a decision They were so indecisive we finally asked them to take a break and come back next week.
wpływ, zdolność skutecznego wywierania nacisku
(bargaining power) something that gives one party a greater chance at succeeding over another We have a little bit of leverage because we are the only stationary company in town.
wymienianie się przysługami
trading one favour for another After a bit of log-rolling we came to an agreement that pleased both of us.
oferowanie dużo mniej niż oczekiwana wartość
offer something much lower than you think the opponent will ask for I was expecting my boss to low-ball in the initial offer, but he proposed a fair salary increase.
zmylić, wprowadzić w błąd
convince by altering or not telling the whole truth about something They misled us into thinking that everything could be resolved today.
wzajemny, wspólny
agreed by both or all The decision to call off the merger was mutual.
goal for the outcome My prime objective is to have my family members added to my benefits plan.
point of view
punkt widzenia
person's ideas/ thoughts From my point of view it makes more sense to wait another six months.
wywierać nacisk/presję
work hard to convince another of an idea He pressured me to accept the terms by using intimidation tactics.
argument to present While I listened to their proposal I noted each of their objectives.
open to/interested in an idea His positive body language demonstrated that he was receptive to our suggestions.
anger held onto from a previous conflict Mary's resentment stems from our not choosing her to head the project.
a display of opposition We didn't expect so much resistance on the final issue.
rozwiązać, uzgodnić
end conflict, come to an agreement Before you can resolve your differences you'll both need to calm down.
metoda, taktyka
strategies used to get one's goals met There are certain tactics that all skillful negotiators employ.
feeling of stress/anxiety caused by heavy conflict There was a lot of tension in the room when George threatened to quit.
kompromis, wymiana
terms that are offered in return for something else Lower payments over a longer period of time sounded like a fair trade-off until we asked about interest charges.
a final term that has serious consequences if not met His ultimatum was that if I didn't agree to give him the raise he asked for, he'd quit today without two week's notice.
nierealny, niepraktyczny
very unlikely to happen It's unrealistic to think that we will have all of our demands met.
a win We considered it a victory because they agreed to four of our five terms.
ulec, ustąpić, poddać się
to give in to another's requests The client will only yield to our conditions, if we agree to work over the holiday weekend.



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poniedziałek, 08 grudzień 2014 00:00

Business english - analiza problemów(po angielsku)

Analizowanie problemów po angielsku z Lucasem:)


Skupienie się na głównym problemie:


What is the main problem? – Co jest głównym/zasadniczym problemem?

What is the real issue (here)? – Co jest (tu) prawdziwym problemem?

(I think) the major problem is . . . – Uważam, że głównym problemem jest…

Our primary concern is . . . – Naszym głównym problemem/obawą jest…

The crux of the matter is . . . – Sednem sprawy jest…

(As I see it), the most important thing is . . . – Według mnie, najważniejsze jest…

The main problem we need to solve is . . . – Głównym problemem, który musimy rozwiązać jest…

We really need to take care of . . . – Musimy zająć się/poradzić sobie z…

It all comes down to this: - To sprowadza się do tego…


Pytanie o zdanie/opinię:


What should we do about it? – Co powinniśmy z tym zrobić?

What needs to be done? – Co trzeba zrobić?

What do you think we should do? – Co waszym zdaniem powinniśmy zrobić?

What are we going to do about it? – Co z tym zrobimy?

Do you have any suggestions? – Czy macie jakieś rady/sugestie?

Any ideas? – Jakieś pomysły?




I recommend that . . . – Zalecam…

I suggest that . . . – Sugeruję…

I would like to propose that . . . – Chciałbym zaproponować…

Why don't we . . . – Czemu nie…?


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Dział: Materiały

Dziś 5 część materiału o prezentacjach, ale zanim zaczniemy – żarcik obrazujący realia dystrybucji wynagrodzeń w korporacjach:


Prezes wielkiej korporacji pyta się swoich pracowników co kupili sobie za 13-ą 

pensję. Zaczepia dyrektora:
- No i jak tam, dyrektorze? Co pan sobie kupił za 13-ę?
- Nowiutkie Audi A8.
- A resztę?
- Ulokowałem na koncie w banku szwajcarskim.
Podchodzi do kierownika:
- I jak u pana, kierowniku? Na co pan wydał 13-ę?
- A kupiłem używanego Poloneza…
- A resztę?
- Wrzuciłem na książeczkę oszczędnościową.
Podchodzi wreszcie do robotnika:
- Co pan sobie kupił za 13-ę?
- Kapcie.
- A resztę?
- Babcia dołożyła...


Presentations – przydatne zwroty i wyrażenia cz 5:

As I’ve already explained, … – jak już wcześniej wspomniałem, …

As I pointed out in the first section, … – jak wykazałem w pierwszym rozdziale/sekcji, …


Referring to other points – Nawiązywanie do innych punktów

I have a question in connection with / concerning payment. – mam pytanie w związku z/związane z płatnością.

There are a few problems regarding the quality. – jest kilka problemów związanych z jakością.

With  respect / regard to planning, we need more background information. – jeśli chodzi o planowanie, potrzebujemy więcej ogólnych informacji.

According to the survey, our customer service needs reviewing. – według sondażu, nasza obsługa klienta wymaga rewizji.


Adding ideas – Dodawanie informacji

In  addition to this, I’d like to say that our IT business is going very  well. – oprócz tego, chciałbym powiedzieć, że nasz biznes IT ma się bardzo dobrze.

Moreover  / Furthermore, there are other interesting facts we should take a look  at. - poza tym/ponadto, są inne interesujące fakty, którym powinniśmy się przyjrzeć.

Apart from being too expensive, this model is too big. – oprócz bycia zbyt drogim, ten model jest zbyt duży.


Talking about (difficult) issues – Rozmawianie o (trudnych) kwestiach

I think we first need to identify the problem. – uważam, że najpierw musimy zidentyfikować problem.

Of course we’ll have to clarify a few points before we start. – oczywiście, musimy wyjaśnić kilka kwestii zanim zaczniemy.

We will have to deal with the problem of increasing prices. – musimy zając się problemem zwiększających się cen.

How shall we cope with unfair business practices? – jak poradzimy sobie z problemem nieuczciwych praktyk biznesowych?

The  question is: why don’t we tackle the distribution problems? – pytanie brzmi: czemu nie zajmujemy się problemami związanymi z dystrybucją?

If we  don’t solve this problem now, we’ll get / run into serious trouble soon. – jeśli nie rozwiążemy tego problemu teraz, niedługo będziemy mieli poważne kłopoty

We will have to take care of this problem now. – musimy zająć się tym problemem teraz

We are currently having difficulties with … – obecnie mamy problem z…


Rhetorical questions – pytania retoryczne

What conclusion can we draw from this? – jakie wnioski możemy z tego wyciągnąć?

So, what does this mean? – A więc, co to oznacza?


wersja pdf: https://app.box.com/s/vmzpe36dne4df3bjxnk2


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Walczący z establishmentem Lucas